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1.Перевести текст.
Сarbohydrates are compounds containing the elements of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen,the last two elements being usually present in the proportion in which they are found in water.The group includes sugars of different degrees of complexity and polysaccharides such as starch,inulin and cellulose.
Sugars which contain from three to nine carbon atoms form monosaccharides, those with five and six carbon atoms(pentoses and hexoses) being the most important.
Polysaccharides are derived from sugar molecules by condensation with the elimination of water.
Sugars are readily soluble in water and in general can be induced to crystallize only with difficulty and after careful purification.They have a sweet taste.Of the polysaccharides inulin is insoluble.
All carbohydrates give a violet colour when treated with alphanaphthol followed by concentrated sulphuric acid. The test may be applied either to a solution or in the case of an insoluble carbohydrate to its suspension in water. Some carbohydrates are reducing. Non-reducing carbohydrates such as sucrose and the polysaccharides can be hydrolyzed by boiling for about half an hour or more with a little dilute acid. After neutralizing sugars have been produced. The process of hydrolysis is a reversible one and more complex carbohydrates are synrhesized in the plant from sugar units. In addition there are some relatively rare desoxy sugars which have so far only been found in nature in cardiac glycosides.These desoxy sugars contain one or two oxygen atoms fewer than the corresponding carbohydrates with six carbon atoms. They include rhamnose,digitoxose and cymarose.
2. Выписать и перевести предложения, содержащие Participle I и Participle II.
3. Выписать и перевести предложения, содержащие самостоятельный причастный оборот.
4. Выписать и перевести предложения, содержащие герундий и герундиальные обороты.
5. Ответьте на вопросы.
1) What do carbohydrates contain? 2) In what proportions are hydrogen and oxygen present in carbohydrates? 3) In what groaps do all carbohydrates fall? 4) How many carbon atoms do sugars of different groups contain? 5) In what way polysaccarides derived from sugar molecules? 6) What are the physical and chemical properties of sugars? 7) When do all carbohydrates give a violet colour? 8) Can non-reducing carbohydrates be hydrolyzed by boiling with a little dilute acid? 9) Is the process of hydrolysis of carbohydrates a reversible one? 10) Where are more complex carbohydrates synthesized? 11) What sugars are rarely found in nature?
6. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.
1) Углеводороды-это соединения, состоящие из углерода, водорода и кислорода. 2) Существует несколько групп углеводородов, которые включают сахара и полисахара, различные по сложности. 3) Моносахара содержат от3 до 9 углеводных атомов. 4) Полисахариды получают из молекул сахара путем конденсации с удалением воды. 5) Сахара легко растворимы в воде. 6) Все углеводороды дают фиолетовый цвет при обработке альфанафтолом. 7) Некоторые углеводороды восстанавливаются. 8) Невосстанавливающиеся углеводороды могут быть гидролизованы при кипении в течение 1/2 часа в растворе слаборазведенной кислоты. 9) Процесс гидролиза является обратимым, и более сложные углеводороды синтезируются в растениях из сахаров.
7. Переведите предложения, содержащие причастные обороты.
1) Using different methods chemists isolated and identified about six million substances. 2) While establishing impurities it is necessary to use special methods. 3) When boiled with dilute nitric acid the solution decomposed. 4) When given in greater amounts certain medicines can affect the biological functions of the body. 5) Comparing the present results with those of fifty years ago we great improvement in the economical production of some vegetable and animal products. 6) When perfumed lipstick becomes pleasant to taste and colour.
8. Напишите предложения, выбрав соответствующие причастие.Переведите на русский язык.
1) Complex mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds (contained, containing) only carbon and hydrogen occur in very large quantities in nature. 2) In 1820 some amino acids were isolated in crystalline form from solutions (preparing, prepared) by heating proteins with mineral acid. 3) In the twentieth century the vitamins and the elements (reduiring,reduired) only in small amounts were discovered. 4) The most important medicines (discovering, discovered) in the twentieth century are vitamins made by partial synthesis, irradiation, fermentation and other methods. 5) For the determination of vitamin B, the (testing, tested) solution was diluted with water. 6) The (colouring, coloured) matter is used in the production of some perfumes. 7) A perfume is a material (consisting, consisted) of one or more volatile constituents.
9. Выделите самостоятельный причастный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1) Carbohydrates are compounds containing the elements of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the last two elements being usually present in the proportions in which they are found in water. 2) Sugars contain from three to nine carbon atoms, those with five and six atoms being the most important. 3) Sugar molecules consist of atoms, each sugar molecule having its own special atom. 4) The reducing effect was calculated as glucose, the reduction being not necessarily due to this sugar alone. 5) A method for quantitavite determination of novocain in water solutions is suggested, the latter containing products of its hydrolysis after the separation of p-aminobenzoic acid. 6) There are some relatively rare desoxy sugars found in nature, these desoxy sugars containing one or two oxygen atoms than the corresponding carbohydrates with six carbon atoms.
10. Укажите герундий.Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1) One salt can be transformed into another by treating it with an acid. 2) After filling, the ampoules are closed with stoppers. 3) Filtration is the process of separating liquids from solids. 4) In addition, attention must be given to avoiding the incorporation of electrolytes into the solution. 5) The procedure was found to be reliable for solving certain analytical problems. 6) Tablets were prepared by transferring 500 mg quantities from each formulation into unevacuable die and compressing.
11. Напишите предложения, выбрав соответствующую форму герундия.
1) It has been demonstrated that bacteria continue to multiply for a time after ( planting, being planted) in broth containing small concentrations of penicillin. 2) After ( being filled, filling) the ampoules are closed with sterilized rubber caps. 3) He dried the precipitate on the paper without ( being removed, removing) it from the funnel. 4) Analysis of the active ingredient was accomplished by ( employing, being employed) gas- liquid chromatography. 5) These gases were purified before ( introducing, being inyroduced) into the absorption glass tubes.
12. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на способ перевода герундия и причастия.
1) On changing the culture new antibiotic substances were obtained. 2) Changing the volume of vessels one may obtain larger amounts of the final product. 3) Much effort has been made by our scientists in solving this poblem. Solving this problem they made many new discoveries. 4) Analysing their response to a selection of antibiotics in bacterial cultures it is necessary to determine the sensitivity of the causative microorganisms. 5) A new modification of an oil method for determining the optimum temperature, pH and the age of the culture was suggested recently.
13. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные формы глагола.
1) Antibiotic substanced have the property of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. 2) The experiments resulted in discovering chloramphenicol. 3) Antibiotic- producing organisms can be obtained by testing pure cultures of organisms. 4) Chemists have succeeded in synthesizing several of hormones. 5) It is necessary to determine the sensivity of causative microorganisms by analysing their response to a selection of antibiotics in bacterial cultures. 6) The necessary concentration of the drug in the blood can be reached by administering it per os.
14. Переведите текст на русский язык.
Drugs are chemical substances used in medicine in the theatment of disease.
These chemical substances can come from many diferent sources. Drugs are obtained from various parts of plants, such as the roots, leaves, and fruit. Examples of such drugs are digitalis (from the foxglove plant), and antibiotics such as penicillin and streptomycin (from plants called molds). Drugs can also be obtained from animals; for example, hormones are secretions from the glands of animals. Drugs can be made from chemical substances which are synthesized in the laboratory. Anticancer drugs, such as methotrexate and prednisone, are examples of laboratory-synthesized drugs. Some drugs are contained in food substances; these drugs are called vitamins. Drugs are stored in an area known as pharmacy.
The field of medicine which studies drugs, their nature, origin, and effect in the body is called pharmacology.
A drug can have three different names. The chemical name is the chemical formula for the drug. This name is often long and complicated.
The generic or official name is shorter, less complicated name which is recognized as identifying the drug for the legal and scientific purpose.
The brand name or trade name is the private property of the individual drug manufacturer and no competitor may use it. Most drugs have several brand names because each manufacturer producing the drug gives it a different name.
15. Найдите к каждому термину из группы (а) определение из группы (б).
а) 1. pharmacy; 2. molecular pharmacology; 3. brand name; 4. generic name; 5. chemical name; 6. cumulation; 7. additive action; 8. potentiation; 9. tolerance; 10. absorption.
б) а. combination of two drugs together is equal to the sum of the effects of each; b. drug name which gives the chemical firmula; c. combination of two drugs together gives an effect which is grester than sum of each drug alone; d. drugs passing into the bloodstream; e. building up of drug in the body due to inability to excrete it as fast as it is taken in; f. effects of a drug diminish as larger and larger doses are needed to produce desired effect; g. area to prepare, store, and diapense drugs; h. official name; legal and noncommercial name; i. trade name of drug privately owned by manufacturer; j. study of drug interaction with cells or subcellular entities.
16. Соотнесите способ введения лекарства из группы (а) с лекарственным средством или процедурой.
а) 1. intravenous; 2. rectal; 3. oral; 4.topical; 5. inhalation; 6. intrathecal; 7. intramuscular; 8. intradermal;
b) a. lotions, creams, ointments; b. tablets and capsules; c. used for allergy skin test; d. lumbar puncture; e. deep injection, usually into buttocks; f. suppositories; g. used for blood transfusions; h. aerosols.
17. Переведите текст на русский язык.
An antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism ( bacterium or simple plant called a mold). The antibiotic can be bacteriocidal ( inhibit the growth of other microorganisms). Antibiotics have been synthesized in the laboratory and are used to theat serious bacterial infections.
The term gram-positive and gram-negative are ofter used to describe types of bacteria which are destroyed or inhibited by antibiotics. Gram-positive bacteria are those which stain purple with the Gram stain. Gram-negative bacteria lose the Gram stain and take the red color of a ''counter'' stain. Examples of gram-positive bacteria are claustridia,staphylococci,and streptococci. Gram-negative bacteria are the bacteria causing meningitis, cholera, and typhoid fever.
The sulfonamides, or ''sulfa drugs'', are also used to inhibit the growth of bacteria. They are bacteriostatic, as opposed to bacteriocidal. These drugs are synthetic and made to resemble a substance bacteria need for making a necessary vitamin, folic acid. Sulfa drugs have been largely replaced by antibiotics which can act faster with fewer side effects. However, such sulfonamides as Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole) are effective in combining urinary tract infections.
18. Напишите значение следующих терминов.
1. gram-positive bacteria; 2. gram-negavive bacteria; 3. antibiotic; 4. bacteriocidal; 5. bacteriostatic; 6. penicillin; 7. erythromycin; 8. streptomycin; 9. tetracycline; 10. sulfonamides.
19. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты.
1. подавляют рост других микроорганизмов; 2. используются для лечения серьезных бактериальных инфекций; 3. бактерии, вызывающие менингит, холеру и тифозную лихорадку; 4. могут действовать быстрее с меньшими побочными эффектами.
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Последние отзывы об авторе leemon
спасибо большое
2011-12-15 15:03:57
2011-12-21 21:14:24
Спасибо большое
2011-12-25 16:08:19